History of Comics
A brief history of American comics started in 1842 with the translation of Rodolphe Töpffer’s work: The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. Local artists took control of this new medium and made the first American comics. But it’s not until the development of daily newspapers that an important audience is attained through comic strips. The first years corresponded towards the establishment of canonical codes (recurring character, speech balloons, etc.) and first genres (family strips, adventure tales). Figures obtained national celebrity and were subject to cross-media adaptation while newspapers were locked in a fierce battle for the most popular authors.
The second main evolution came in 1934 with the comic, which allowed the dissemination of comics (first reprints of comic strips) in dedicated media. In 1938, when Superman appeared in one of these comic books, began what’s typically called the «Golden Age of Comic Books». During World War II, superheroes and funny animals were the most popular genres. Following a decline of the superheroes, new genres developed (western, romance, science fiction, etc..) and reached an extremely essential readership. At the beginning of the 1950s, with the emergence of television, comic books sales started to fall. At the same time, they experienced many attacks on their alleged trouble for youth. As an example, the development of the Comics Code Authority removed the detective and horror series incriminated; though nor comic strips or magazines were affected by these attacks.
In 1956 began the «Silver Age of Comic Books» with the come back of the choice for superheroes, including Flash and Green Lantern by DC Comics. If Dell Comics and it is comics for children stayed the top publisher of comic books, genres besides superheroes began to decline and lots of publishers closed. Very popular superheroes, primarily developed by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, appeared in Marvel Comics. This turned into the leading publisher of comics in the next period known as the «Bronze Age of Comic Books» (from the early 1970s to 1985) where the stories became less manichean while superhero comics managed their hegemony. The distinction between these periods is usually associated by historians with an event but it is rather a series of adjustments that influenced many facets of the comics world. At the same time, underground comics appeared, which, aesthetically, addressed new themes, and economically, were based on a new distribution model. Comic strips continue being distributed throughout the country and even some of them gained international distribution, such as Peanuts.
The modern period initially seemed to be a new golden age when writers and artists recreated classic characters or launched new series that enticed millions of readers. However, it had been then marked by a series of downturn that threaten the financial balance of numerous agents. Substitute comics, successors of underground comics, develop in line with Art Spiegelman and his Maus. However, the comic strip possessed a crisis more pronounced in the 2000s and associated with that of the press as a whole, yet still time a new American product, the webcomics, sprang.